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Cleaner Technology Project for Textile Processing Industry (CTPT)

INTRODUCTION

    Cleaner Production Institute (CPI) is a not-for-profit and non-governmental organization registered under Societies Registration Act of 1860. The institute aims to promote and execute environmental development projects in the industrial sectors of Pakistan and conduct research in areas concerning to environmental technology.

    CPI has initiated the Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD) on July 01, 2007 with technical assistance from the Embassy Of Kingdom Of Netherlands (EKN) to help Pakistani industry stay competitive. The programme essentially upholds the need of internalizing environment and energy costs into an economic process. Sector specific cleaner technology and energy efficiency projects are the components of PISD. Textile processing is one of the four major industrial sectors- together with leather, pulp & paper and sugar - on which the programme will continue to focus during the first three years of its operation.

TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    The textile sector, with more than 700 industrial units currently running, is the most important industrial sector of Pakistan. Textile and its made-ups account for over 60% of the country is total exports, besides catering to the local market demands. In year 2005-06, the sector contributed 8.5% to the Gross Domestic Product and employed 38% of total manufacturing labor force of the country. But of late, the sector has been struggling to compete with Chinese, Indian and Bangladeshi products that are eating into its market share, primarily because of lower prices. Textile exports fell 9.11 percent year-on-year to $3.23 billion in the first four months of the 2006/07 fiscal year. Besides other remedial measures to stay competitive, improvement in resource use efficiency and better environmental performance can contribute significantly in supporting the Pakistani textile processing industry.

MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL & ENERGY CONCERNS

  • Wastewater

    Textile processing consumes extensive water particularly in the washing steps. Water consumption figure varies from 70-400 liters per kg of finished fabric, very high compared to the optimum figure of 70-100. Major factors responsible for this huge water consumption are the unawareness regarding water conservation measures, old and inefficient machines, lack of monitoring and measurement aptitude etc. High water consumption leads to excessive chemical and energy usage, while a major part of this water is discharged as untreated wastewater posing environmental and health hazards.

    Excessive Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is the major issue of textile effluent, along with high concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Copper and Chromium.

  • Air Emissions

    Air pollution of mild to medium intensity is caused via both point and diffused sources. Point air emissions sources are steam and therm oil boilers, diesel and gas generators, gas based stenters etc. Major air pollutants include COx, SOx, NOx and PM. Diffused air emission sources are the chemical stores, color kitchen and processing areas. These sources generate Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), besides other pollutants.

  • Solid Waste

    Major solid waste streams are the rejected fabric, empty chemical and lubricant containers, polythene bags and cardboard cartons of dyes and pigments, discarded machine parts, oily rags, screen cuttings, expired chemicals, packing material etc. Some part of this stream is reused and recycled. Proper collection, segregation and disposal system for solid waste does not exist in most cases.

  • Health Risks

    Exposure to particulates and VOC, high noise levels and hot working environment are major health irritants in a textile processing unit. Excessive exposure to particulates may cause eye soreness, asthma, and other respiratory diseases. VOC fumes are severely hazardous to health. Working in hot environment may also result into heat stroke, fainting and heat rashes among workers. Excessive noise in the occupational areas can cause permanent hearing loss, dull senses and increase accident rates. Chemical containers are not provided with the secondary containment due to which spills and leaks badly affect soil and occupational areas.

  • Energy Losses

    Various forms of energy are extensively used in a typical textile processing unit, with thermal energy being the most critical. Thermal energy losses occur mainly due to steam leakages, improper machine maintenance, malfunctioning of steam traps, uncovering of hot pipelines and surfaces, wastage of hot cooling water, conventional washing sequence instead of countercurrent in the machines, no recovery of heat from the hot wastewater and flue gases streams, wastage of steam condensate etc.

PISD

    Cleaner production technologies have gained good reputation and success over the years in Pakistani industry under various projects aiming to help industrial units improve their environmental performance without compromising on profit margins.

    More recently, the energy efficient technologies have also gained significance due to the heavy cost of electrical and thermal energy. Substantial savings could be made annually by conserving energy alone through adopting energy- efficient processes and practices. There has been a growing interest over the recent years amongst textile processing units to benefit from energy efficient solutions.

    Considering this, Cleaner Production Institute (CPI) has started the Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD). Cleaner Technology Project for Textile Processing Industry (CTPT) is a component project of PISD. CTPT intends to provide free of cost technical services to textile processing units in implementing energy efficient and environment friendly technologies.

CLEANER TECHNOLOGY PROJECT FOR TEXTILE SECTOR (CTPT)

    In view of the present situation and as an effort to approach the textile processing sector with better solutions to the growing environmental, social and energy related problems, Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development has included CLEANER TECHNOLOGY PROJECT FOR TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY (CTPT) as one of its component projects. All Pakistan Textile Processing Mills Association (APTPMA) is collaborating with CPI to implement CTPT which focuses on cleaner production technology, energy efficiency, wastewater treatment, environmental management system and corporate social responsibility.